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  Personnel Administration  

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COMMUNICATION
 

Communication mens getting across ideas and information to another person. For communication to take place, it should originate form an individual and be transmitted to another who receives it and acknowledges it. Sending the message alone does not complete the process of communication. This is illustrated as:


Transmission


Sender


Receiver


Acknowledgment



The sender might use language, sings or actions to transmit a message. The receiver might receive it by listening, reacting or simply observing, in any case the process of communication involves three things, a communication (sender), a communicate (receiver), and the content of communication (message). This is generally formulated interims of who says what to whom. This clearly identities the three components of the communication process, i.e., who, what and whom. Thus communication is a meaningful interaction among human beings. It implies that a message is sent and a message is received.

Communication is important in an organization because it is one of the chief means by which members work together. It helps them to hold together by making it possible of them to influence and react to each other . In fact communication is so fundamental that without it the organization cannot exist.

A manger might theoretically develop his plans, procedures an the requisite organizational structure, but when it comes to implementing them he ha to communicate this to his subordinates, peers, and superiors. Unless a manager has a communication skill of the highest order, issuance of orders and electing participation from employees may become difficult.

More Notes on  COMMUNICATION 
INCENTIVES AND FRINGE BENEFITS
 

Men work for bread but not for bread only, they require a little more. Though money is the real motive to incite a man for work because it satisfies the various needs-physiological and other needs-and is essential to maintain himself and his dependents. Ordinarily people attach more importance to money.

A man may be induced to work, if proper incentives are given to him. Incentive means the actions which incite the man to worm. Incentives may be given in terms of money or i terms of benefits and services and thus they may termed as financial and non-financial incentives. Financial and non-financial incentives are essential to induce a worker just as right and left feo are essential for walking. Both are complementary to each other. Incentives improve the efficiency of the workers; promotes the loyalty of the workers to the organisation and heightens the morale of the people at work.

Wage may be treated as an incentive to work. We have discussed already various methods of wage incentives. Here in this lesson, we shall discuss the various (other than wage incentives) provided by the employer to his employees to induce them to work harder to achieve the organisation goal, i.e., maximum output at minimum cost for the betterment of the organisation, the employees and the society.

INTRODUCTION
 

Ever since the factory system, production mangers have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the physical organisation of the manufacturing plant. During the 19th century the average employer in his efforts to reduce costs centralized his attention upon management and machines, while manpower was looked upon as a comparatively cheap commodity to be bought and employed to make things which the employer could sell and so add to bis personal wealth. The very motive of production seemed to have been for the benefits of the privileged few, the common man did not appeal to have any place in the scheme of things. Near the close of the 19th century a few more enterprising employers had their attentions attracted to the human element the most important factor in production. During more recent years, particularly in the last 25 years, the humanitarian conception of labour has gripped the imagination of employers. It is reallied that the minds of the workers as well as their bodies must be considered by management and that the state of their minds has much to do with the value of their services. The human approach states that the workers have certain inalienable rights as human beings, that these rights are as important as the rights of the persons, and that it is industry's duty to recognise these rights.

It is gratifying to note that some of the Indian employers are beginning to realize that the Personnel Management is a fourth major division of Business Management, and that it is as important as Finance, Manufacturing and sales. The Personnel Manger should therefore rank equally with the other executives, operating under the supervision of and directly responsible to the General Manger or the Chief Executive.

More Notes on  INTRODUCTION 
JOB EVALUATION
 

The most difficult and the important function of personnel management is to fix the wage rates for each job in the resignation and it is not possible unless the relative worth of jobs is known. In order to determine the relative worth of the job in comparison to other jobs in the organizations, job evaluation is the most current and systematic technique. In other words it is a formal system of determining base compensation of jobs. The main objective of this technique is to ascertain the relative worth of the job through an objective evaluation so that relative compensation may be fixed for each job.

More Notes on  JOB EVALUATION 
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OR MERIT RATING
 

It is a well established fact that people differ in their abilities and aptitudes. These differences are natural to a great extent and cannot be eliminately completely by giving them education and training. There will always be some difference in the quality and quantity of work alone by different employees. Therefore, it is necessary for the management to know there differences so that it may develop certain programmes in the organisation for those employees who have better potentials by rewarding additional payments to them or may ratify the wrong placement of employees. The individual employee may also like to know his capability in terms of his performance on the job qualitatively and quantitatively and quantitatively in comparison to his fellow employees so that he may improve upon it.

No firm has a choice as to whether or not it should appraise its personnel and their performance but the choice lies between the systematic appraisal and the unsystematic or casual appraisal. The system of appraising the man is not new bet the systematic approach of evaluating the man is by no means a new development. The technique of appraising the man by superiors or other is wildly known as 'Merit-rating'. It is also, sometimes termed as employees appraisal' and ;'personnel performance evaluation' etc.

Every individual differs form each other in is abilities and aptitudes. The management should know these difference to develop various development in the organisation to have an efficient work-force. 'Merit Rating technique has been evolved to know the relative worth of the employee, qualitatively and quantitatively on the job, in comparison to other fellow workers. It is a systematic approach for evaluating the personality and performance of each employee by his supervisor or by some other person, who is well versed in the technique of personnel appraisal. It compares the individual employees in a work group in terms of personal qualities or drawbacks and the requirement of there respective jobs. Thus merit rating is primarily concerned wit evaluating the differences in employees.

PRINCIPLES OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
 

Principles are fundamental rules which guide the executive. So principles of personnel management are the guiding rules for the personnel executive in administering and directing the personnel polices on rational basis. As stated earlier, the personnel management is the branch of general management, therefore principles of general management more or less reflect the principles of personnel management. Principles of personnel management have been developed on the basis of years of experience which guide the conduct o the personnel administrators. Different authorities on management have presented the principles or personnel management in different forms.

PROMOTION
 

Advancement within an organisation is ordinarily labeled as 'Promotion'. Promotion involves movement of a person to a position carrying higher status, more pay, increased benefits and privileges in the same organisation.

All the three elements must be present in promotion i.e., promotion places employee in a position which carries greater prestige and status, increased responsibilities as well as higher earnings. When the salary of an employee is increased without corresponding change in job grade, it is upgrading and not promotion. Ordinarily the change to higher job is accompanied by increased pay and privileges, but not always. If there is increase in responsibility without an increase in pay may be called 'Dry Portion'. If an employee is placed to a job involving similar responsibilities, it is called transfer and not promotion, no matter there is an increase in his earnings.

More Notes on  PROMOTION 
SELECTION AND PLACEMENT OF PERSONNEL
 

It is important for the success of an enterprise that the right type of men should be put o different jobs. This axiom can be well expressed by the proverb tat “for round holes, there should be round pegs, and for square holes there should be square pegs”. It means that there must be correlation between the man and the job. A job should be done by a person who is exactly qualified for it, no more, no less.

In order to initiate the selection process, three preliminary requirements must be satisfied: (i) There must be the authority to ire which comes form the employment requisition as developed through analysis of work load and work force. (ii) We must have standard of person with which we can compare the prospective employees. This is represented by job specifications as developed trough job analysis, and (iii) We must have job applicants from where we can select the persons to be hired. A planned recruitment programme provides us with these applicants.

The selection process establishes a relationship between employer and employees which is more than a contractual relationship. So the selection process should look into the human adjustments to conversational opportunities.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL
 

After having selected the most suitable person in the organization trough the application of scientific techniques, the next important function of the personnel management is to arrange for their training. No organization can choose whether or not to train the employees, the only choice method to be employed. If no planned programme of training is established, the employee may engage himself in self-training by trial and error or by observing others an thus training cost would not have been eliminated. In absence of a systematic training programme, the training costs would be rater higher. The interest of labour and management should be close, if not identical if a sound training programme is reestablished in the organization. All types of jobs require some type of training for their efficient performance and therefore all employees new or old should be trained or retrained. Every new employee, regardless of his previous training, education and experience needs to be introduced to the work-environment of is new employer and to be taught how to perform specific tasks. Moreover, specific occasions for retraining arise when an employee is transferred, or promoted or when jobs change an new skills must be learnt. The training is valuable to the employee in terms of better nob security an greater opportunity for advancement.

WORKERS' PARTICIPATION IN MANAGEMENT
 

Workers' participation is crucial for better results in an organization. It helps in developing a technology to resolve conflict and to achieve constructive cooperation among the partners of production. Workers' participation in India can be dated as far back as 1920 when workers and employers in the Ahmadabad textile industry agreed to settle disputes by mutual discussion. However, ti was not until 1947 that it achieved some acceptance when the Government of India enacted the Industrial Dispute Act with the dual purpose of privation and settlement of industrial disputes. Under the provision of the Act works committees were appointed to “remove cause of friction between the employer and the workmen in the day-to-day working of the establishment and to promote measures of securing amity and good reaction between them”. Subsequently, the Joint Management council was launched by the Tripartite Indian Labour Conference in 1957 with the purpose of improving working conditions, productivity, communication, general administration of laws and collective agreement, of encouraging suggestions from workers and creating among them a sens of participation.

Meaning and Scope of Personnel Management
In the words of Thomas G. Spates “Personnel administration is a code of the ways of organising and treating individuals at work so that they will each get the greatest possible realisation of their intrinsic abilities thus attaining maximum efficiency for themselves and their group, and thereby giving to the enterprise of which they are a part its determining competitive advantage and its optimum results”.   Read Full Article Meaning and Scope of Personnel Management
Place of Personnel Manager
Personnel Manger is a staff officer whose function is to provide special services to the line officers and advices and counsel them on personnel problems. He is an exponent of a point of view and methods designed to help line managers in getting effective results through people. He cannot establish policies and make divisions himself; he has to advice the line Manger, the final decision resting with the latter. Managing people is the heart and essence of being a manger.  Read Full Article Place of Personnel Manager
Principal of Personnel Manager
The principal functions of a Personnel Manager are as follows  Read Full Article Principal of Personnel Manager
Importance of Personnel Department in an Organisation
In the present days of industrialisation the Personnel Department occupies the important place in the industrial undertakings. The manger is having major managerial responsibilities in the industrial undertakings.  Read Full Article Importance of Personnel Department in an Organisation
Functions of Personnel department
The functions and activities of the personnel department may be classified under four heads  Read Full Article Functions of Personnel department
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