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Off-The-Job-Methods of method of executive development
The main techniques under this method are


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(a) Special Courses. The method of special courses requires the trainee to leave the work place and to devote is entire time to developmental objectives. The prime object of such special courses is to provide an opportunity to te trainee to acquire knowledge with full devotion. Development is primary and work is secondary. These courses may be conducted in a number of ways-Firstly, the organisation establishes such courses to be taught to the trains by the members of the firm or by the regular instructor appointed by the firm or by the regular instructor appointed by the firm or by the specialists (professors and lecturers_ from other outside institutions. The second approach to this technique is to send the personnel to programmes established by the colleges or universities. The organisation sponsors some of its members to the courses and bears the expenses. The third approach to the technique is to work with a college or other institutions in establishing a course or a series of courses to be taught by faculty members. A big organisation may starts its own training school.

(b) Role Playing.
Under this method, two or more trainees are assigned different roles to play by creating an a rtificial conflict situation. No dialogged is given before hand. The role players are provided with he written or oral description of the situation and the role to play. Sufficient time is given to the role players to plan tier actions and they must act their parts before the class. For instance role playing situation may be a supervisor discussing grievances with is subordinate.

(c) Case Study.
Case study technique is extensively used in teaching law, business management, human relation, etc., to let the trainee understand that there mat be different solutions to a particular problem. Under this method, the trainees are given a realistic problem to discuss, which is more or less related to the principles already taught. This method provides an opportunity to the trainee to apply his skill to the solution of realistic problems. Cases may be used in either of the two ways:- (i) They can be used after exposing the formal theory under which the trainee applies their skill to specific situation, or (ii) They may be assigned to the trainees for written analysis or oral discussion without any prior discussion of the theory.

(d) Conference.
A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organised plan is which members participate in oral discussion of a particular problem and thus develop their knowledge and understanding. It is an effective training device for conferences members and conference leaders. Both learns a lot from others view point and compare his opinions with others. The conference leaders may also learn how to develop his skill to motivate people through his direction of discussion. Conferences may of three types:- (i) The directed or guided conference, (ii) Consultative conference, and (ii) Problem solving conference. However guided conference is generally used for training purposes.

(e) Multiple Management.
Under this system, a permanent advisory board or committee of executives study the problems of organisation and make recommendations to the higher management for final decision. There is another device, constituting a junior board of directors in a company for training the executives. The board is given power to discuss any problem which the senior board of directors (constituted by shareholders) could discuss. The utility of junior board is only to train the junior executives. Thus junior board discuss wide variety of subjects which a senior board can discuss or in other way, it is an advisory body.

(f) Managements Games.
It is a classroom exercise, in which teams of students compete against each other to achieve common objective. The game is designed to be a close representations of real life conditions. The trainees are asked to make decisions about production, cost, research and development, etc., for an organisation. Since they are often divided into teams as competing companies, experience is obtained in team work. Under tis method, the trainees learn by analyzing problems by using some intention and by making trial and error type of decisions. Any wrong is corrected by the trainer or sometimes a second chance is given to to something all other again.

(g) Syndicate Method.
Under this method, 5 or 6 groups consisting of about 10 members are formed. Each group (Syndicate) is composed of carefully selected men who, on the one and, represents fair cross section of the executive life of t country, i.e. men from public sector and private sector undertakings, civil and defense services, banking, insurance, etc., and on the other hand, a good well balance team of management from different fields, i.e., production, marketing, personnel, finance, etc. The groups are given assignments, made up before hand to be submitted within a specified date and time. Each man in t group is appointed leader of the group for the performance of the given task by rotation and so for the secretary for the subdivision of the course. Each task is assigned in the form of a 'Brief', a document prepared by the experts on the faculty with meticulous care. It also fixes the time by which the study is to be completed. Lecturers by experts are also arranged to supplement the study. The report prepared an submitted by a group is circulated among the members of the other groups for comparative study and critical evaluation. The leader or chairman of the group is required to present the views of his group in the joint session and justify his group's view in case of criticism or questions.

(h) Sensitivity Training Or T-Group.
In sensitivity training, the executives spends about two work-hours attending t lectures on the subject such as leadership and communication. The members, under this method, sit around a table and discuss. The trainer, usually a psychologist, neither leads the discussion nor suggests what should be discussed but only guides the discussion. The members freely discuss and criticize the behaviour of each other thereby giving a feed back positive or negative.

(i) Programmed Instruction.
Programmed instruction as gained a lot of importance both in training and in industry in modern times it includes teaching machines, auto instruction, automatic instruction and programmed learning. It is an application of science of learning to the task of training and education. The core feature of programmed instruction is the participation by the trainee and immediate fed back by him. Programmed instruction machines include films, tapes, programmed books, illustrations, printed material, diagrams, etc. it performs two functions:- (i) provides information to the learner, and (ii) provides feed back whether the response is correct or wrong.

(j) Selective Readings.
Many executives find it very difficult to do much reading other than that absolutely required in the performance of their jobs. Some organizations provide some time for reading which will advance the general knowledge and background of the individuals. Many organisations purchase some high level journals like the Commerce, the Capitalist, the Management in Govt., etc,. And dailies like the Economic Times, the Financial Express, etc.

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Off-The-Job-Methods of method of executive development
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