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Pre-Scientific Management
Though Frederic W. Taylor is known as the founder of scientific management, many persons before him made considerable contribution to the development of management thought.


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Prominent among them were James Watt and Boulton, Owen, Babbage and Poor. Their main contributions are as follows:

(i) James Watt and Boulton. These two men took charge of the management of the Soho Engineering Foundry when it was established in 1796 in Great Britain. Watt was incharge of organisation and administration, and Boulton was responsible for the sales or commercial activities. They developed many management techniques. Prominent among them were market research an forecasting in marketing ares; planned machine layout in terms of work-flow requirements, production planning, production-process standards, and standardisation of product component in production area; calculation of cost and profit for each machine and department in costing area; training and development of workers and executive, work study and payment by results, welfare programme and constitution of a committee to administer it in personnel area.

(ii) Robert Owen. He carried out most of his experiments in the area of personnel management when he was engaged in managing the textile mills in Scotland between 1800 and 1828. Owen improved working conditions in the factory, provided meals to employees in the factory, provided housing and marketing store facilities to the employees. His main philosophy was that good personnel management paid dividends to the employer and it was in essential part of every manager.

(iii) Charles Babbage. Babbage was a professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University (1818-39) and took keen interest in the problems of manufacturing operations. He is best remembered for his book 'On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures' published in 1832. He was specially interested in the economics of division of labour and development of scientific principles to govern a manager's use of facilities, materials and labour to get the best possible results.

(iv) Henry Varnum Poor. He was editor of 'American Railroad Journal' in the latter half of the nineteenth century. While on this position he watched and analysed the progress of American railroad system. He visualized the scope for effective management to bring the railroad in the light direction. He gave many recommendations many of which might be termed as most modern. He felt the need for a managerial system with a clear organisation structure in which people have clear responsibility and can be held accountable.

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