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Meaning and Types of Dividend
The profits of a company when made available for the distribution among its shareholders are called dividend. The dividend may be as a fixed annual percentage of paid up capital as in the case of preference shares or it may vary according to the prosperity of the company as in the case of ordinary shares.


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The decision for distributing or paying a dividend is taken in the meeting of Board of Directors and in confirmed generally by the annual general meeting of the shareholders. The dividend can be declared only out of divisible profits, remained after setting of all the expenses, transferring the reasonable amount of profit to reserve fund and providing for depreciation and taxation for the year. It means if in any year, there is not profits, no dividend shall be distributed that year. The shareholders cannot insist upon the company to declared the dividend. It is solely the discretion of the directors. Aunt hinted that the dividend was an income of the owners of the corporation which they received in the capacity of the owner. Distribution of dividend involves reduction of current assets (cash) but not always. Stock dividend or bonus shares is an exception to it.

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