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Comparative Management
The study of comparative management understands and analyzes the differences and commonness in various management practices as applied to different countries.


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The study also looks for some universal principles of management that can be successfully applied to all establishments.

The are some comparative management philosophers who believe that world is becoming smaller an uniform because of education, technology and sense of pragmatic thinking. There are other scholars who are convinced that the world will remain diverse because of deep rooted cultural inertia, strong religious code of conduct, different stages of economic development, unevenly distributed natural resources and regional overpopulation These two respective views are know as views of “convergence” and philosophy of “divergence”.

Divergence views are currently more dominant because the attitudes in life are developed though cultural upbringing and cultures are measurably different in different nations. These differences are significant in many areas relative to management practices and include the leadership style, concept of motivation and competition, organizational design etc. Hug E. Kramer has studied the differences in attitudes towards certain managerial concepts among American, European and Japanese cultures. For example, in America, competition is a strong character building morale force and business competition is like a big sport game, while in Japan, the company is likely a family and there is no place for internal competition. A man's final goal is harmony with nature and his fellow men rather than measurable materialistic achievements. Even in hiring policies American companies prefer competent and aggressive individuals who excel in completion and are high achievers. In japan, on the other hand, individuals are hired on their ability to become an honorable “company member” and share the ream spirit.

The multi-dimensional concept of achievement is summarized by John W. Hunt as follows:

The concept most different to translate to different cultures (is)...the multidimensional concept of “achievement”. In most work done outside America, Great Britain and other Anglo-American societies, this word has been refined to mean autonomy and/or creativity. Similarly, the value-ladden concept of “success” which in American literature appears to mean individual success, is not readily transferable to Japanese or Asian cultures. The successful man in Thailand may be one who looks after his extended family. The successful person in North American writings achieves, through education, the accumulation of assets and corporate ladder climbing. The “high achiever” (if such translation was possible) in parts of Asia succeeds primarily in his relationships and in disowning attachment to possessions; corporate ladder climbing has much lower significance. Further, for the Hindu manager in India, uncertainty is not an issue, simply because his whole life is predetermined and certain. By contrast, one's lot is clearly uncertain in Christian societies.

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