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ORGANISATION THEORY


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Nature of organisation

The study of an object or discipline should begin with its working definition delineating precisely its content and characteristics, defining its scope and boundary, and prescribing the objectives for which it stands. From this point of view, we can proceed further only when we define the term organisation. However, it is very difficult to define the term orgnaisation precisely bringing all the characteristics of a good definition.

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Criticisms of Principles of Classical Theory

A major contribution of classical theorists is the formulation of various principles of organisation.

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Criticisms of Whole Theory of Classical Theory

According to the requirements of the organizations, classical theory suffers form many limitations.

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Appraisal of Classical Theory

Classical organisation theory-physiological theory combined with administrative management theory-has attracted numerous criticisms, particularly from neoclassicists.

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Fayol and Classical Theory

Fayol, the real father of administrative management theory, has viewed the organizational problems from the top level.

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Weber and Classical Theory

Max Weber, a German social scientist, is regarded as the father of bureaucracy, a basic content of classical organisation theory relating to structure and administrative process of the organisation.

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Administrative Management Theory

Scientific management group was primarily concerned with problems at the operative level and did not emphasise managerial organisation and process. The administrative theorists-Weber, Fayol, Gulick, Sheldon, Mooney and Reiley, and Urwick-have viewed the central problem a being one where there must be identification of tasks necessary for achieving the general purpose of the organisation and of the grouping or departmentation to take place to fulfill those functions most effectively.

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Critical Analysis of the Approach of Classical organisation theory

Although the principles of scientific management were intended for broad application, as claimed by the contributors, the emphasis was not beyond the improvement at the shop levels. They were more concerned about the efficiency of workers at actual work-place and had left the principles which could be applied to other functions of the organisation.

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Scientific Management of Classical organisation theory

Through some attempts were made earlier to study organisational problems, particularly its engineering problems, the real study in an organised way is recorded through the scientific management, with which Taylor, Frank Gilbraith, Lillian Gilbraith, Henry Gantt, and Harrington Emerson are associated.

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Classical organisation theory

The term classical in English language means something traditionally accepted or long established. The classical theory is the beginning of the systematic study of the organisations.

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Uses of organisation theory

The basic objective of a theory is to explain an predict. Organisation theory focuses its attention on that special category of social or human grouping that is designed as an organisation.

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Organisation Theory and Organisation Behavior

Sometimes organisation theory and organisation behavior are used interchangeably. However, some differences can be made between the two. 'Organizational behaviour' as defined by Davis 'is the study and application of knowledge about human behavior in organisation as it relates to other system elements, such as structure, technology, and the external social system.' If this definition is compared with that of organisation theory which is also the study of behaviour of human beings in organisations, the contents and subject-matter seem to be similar.

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Organisation Theory and the Theory of the Firm

The basic contents of the theory of the firm, or the economic theory, as described by Mcguire, are as follows

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Organization Theory and management Theory

Management theory and organisation theory, though both have common orientation to organisations as social entities, are different in their nature and scope. Though management theory must be based on organisation theory, it contains philosophical assumptions and value orientations regarding the nature of human behavior that are not basic to a theory of organisation.

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Non-theoretic Formulations of Organization theory

Non-theoretic formulations do not meet the requirements of theory.They are of two types: definitional system and analytical schema.

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Theoretic systems of Organization theory

The use of the term theory in the term theory in the phrase organization theory does not quite square with its meaning to the philosophy of science. Before a set of concepts is called a theory, certain requirements must be met. First, the concepts which are used to form theory must be observational, or experimental.

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